If the crankshaft whips the oil into a froth, you won't have proper oil film protection of various bearings.
If there is excess oil in the engine some will stay at the bottom end with gravity even when the oil near the top gets whipped into cream.
I had a 1986 Porsche 911 Targa and I put way too much oil into the engine when it was new, before I read the owner's manual to learn that the dipstick only reads accurately with the engine idling (dry sump). I had to take the car out at night to burn off the oil - quite a sight - the rear end of the car was like that of a rocket blasting off there was so much oily smoke blowing off.
Nothing happened to the engine or the catalytic converter. I wonder why.
"Dry sump" means the oil is stored in a separate tank and not in an oil pan beneath the crankshaft. Surely you were supposed to add oil to the tank and not to the "engine." Seems like overfilling the tank would cause the oil to just overflow. Yes, there is a drip pan beneath the crankshaft, but it's very shallow and the oil system is designed to maintain the level there at a safe level. If you somehow got too much oil in the drip pan, you were just lucky there was no damage.
Simply you will put too much pressure in the inside of the engine, You'll blow the seals and hydrolics inside. How much is a new diesal engine will be your next question. If you dont know how to remove it tow it you a local dealer and have them take it out. Dont drive it, you dont know what damge you may have done even on a short trip.